We already know mathematical formula to describe precisely the magnitude and direction of gravitational forces between two heavenly bodies in the universe knowing their masses and distance. The task becomes tremendously complicated when we add another body and with further addition of new bodies, we soon reach to chaos and the task goes out of hands of human mathematics.
Here comes the hands of God, the Almighty Allah. Read what Allah says in 35:41
Indeed, Allah holds the heavens and the earth, lest they cease. And if they should cease, no one could hold them [in place] after Him. Indeed, He is Forbearing and Forgiving.
It is amazing that billions of stars and huge heavenly bodies swim in this universe with high speed, yet they never collide and all follow some mysterious Godly mathematics that we human have no idea, and can only gaze to the skies with awe and amazement like a small child.
Read for example 36:40
It is not allowable for the sun to reach the moon, nor does the night overtake the day, but each, in an orbit, is swimming.
Let me then move from heavens to earth. Our human society works similarly. There is a grand Godly mathematical formula that governs everything on earth. Social scientists often struggle to fit some regression lines to explain certain behavior through a number of explanatory parameters. Economists might attempt to design a model that explains economic growth through population growth and level of education. They would then start adding few more parameters with the cost of losing precision. Can human being - with ignorance of history and impatience - fit a model that works with 100% accuracy and fits well for all societies and all times? Here again the analogy of stars works well. All we can do is work on very small context and gaze like a child on the grand power of Allah who let the human society progress on earth for thousands and thousands of years.
In the Quran, we are often exposed to snippets of these grand divine mathematical calculus of how human societies work. These are often called in the language of Quran Sunnat al-Allah or the patterns of Allah. Read for example [33:38]
[This is] the (Sunnat-Allah) established way of Allah with those who have passed on before. And ever is the command of Allah a destiny decreed.
Or, read verse 62 of the same surah [33:62]
[This is] the established way of Allah with those who passed on before; and you will not find in the way of Allah any change.
You will not find in the Sunnat-Allah any change. That means it is a universal mathematical formula that fits all time and all places. Isn’t that amazing to find a single formula that explains all history. Tolstoy might have attempted to do that in his War and Peace.
Throughout history, messengers of Allah came to us with divine knowledge that puzzled contemporary scholars. Almost every time, out of envy, these earthly materialistic scholars became enemy of these prophets and start to mock them and brand the divine knowledge as works of magicians or madmen. Very soon they realize the value of these divine knowledge, but then it was too late. History is nothing but this kind of a drama between followers of Allah’s messengers, and followers of the worldly elders of societies.
Leave you with verses 82 to 85 of chapter 40 (Ghafir):
Have they not traveled through the land and observed how was the end of those before them? They were more numerous than themselves and greater in strength and in impression on the land, but they were not availed by what they used to earn. And when their messengers came to them with clear proofs, they [merely] rejoiced in what they had of knowledge, but they were enveloped by what they used to ridicule. And when they saw Our punishment, they said,” We believe in Allah alone and disbelieve in that which we used to associate with Him.” But never did their faith benefit them once they saw Our punishment. [It is] the established way of Allah which has preceded among His servants. And the disbelievers thereupon lost [all].